Prophylactic self-isolation for skin rejuvenation. Day 78th.

Self-sufficient skin rejuvenation. Part 4.

Overture

Let’s kick off a forthright concept of “good cream” and “bad cream” and just continue going deeper in l’earning about the essence of cosmetic products. We earn what we l’earn, right?:)

By decoding the ingredient lists of cosmetic products I could keep myself busy for weeks. As for that, few weeks of self-isolation under COVID-19 screen could pass just like that

Here is the composition of the real cosmetic product, body/face oil, supposed to be as natural as possible – 96% of the ingredients are of natural origin! Let’s dive deep into it and see what is really what 🙂 The ingredient (benzyl salicylate), which we will discuss here today is marked with number 7.

Ingredient list of the cosmetic product – body/face oil

Clauses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 were discussed in the previous post. You can read my previous posts dedicated to cosmetic products here:

Here we continue and deal with the aroma ingredients of the actual body/face oil

7. Benzyl salicylate, linalool, limonene, citronellol, geraniol

Fragrances/ parfum

In a composition of cosmetic products, fragrances are a material or combination of materials to produce or to mask a particular odor. There are 26 fragrances in EU, which must be labelled, if they are present in the formulation at concentrations greater than 0.001% in leave-on products (like face/body creams) or greater than 0.01% in rinse-off products (like shampoos). All 26 fragrances are listed below (1). Find them in your favorable cosmetics!

Alpha-Isomethyl Ionone  
Amyl Cinnamal  
Amylcinnamyl Alcohol  
Anise Alcohol  
Benzyl Alcohol  
Benzyl Benzoate  
Benzyl Cinnamate  
Benzyl Salicylate  
Butylphenyl Methylpropionol  
Cinnamal  
Coumarin  
Cinnamyl Alcohol  
Citral  
Citronellol  
Eugenol  
Evernia Prunastri (Oakmoss) Extract  
Evernia Furfuracea (Treemoss) Extract  
Farnesol  
Geraniol  
Isoeugenol  
Hexyl Cinnamal  
Hydroxycitronellal  
Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde  
Linalool  
Limonene  
Methyl 2-Octynoate  
Fragrances in EU, which must be labelled if presented in cosmetic products at certain concentrations

However, as it is mentioned in the disclaimer of the Dictionary (1): “The inclusion of any ingredient means only that it is offered for sale for use in cosmetic products. It does not imply that the substance is safe for use as a cosmetic ingredient … The suitability for use of any ingredient, as a component of a finished cosmetic product or for any other purpose, is solely the responsibility of the cosmetic product manufacturer, the distributor, or other users of this publication”.

Most of the cosmetic fragrances are primarily of natural origin, extracted from plants or other natural substances. However, it does not mean that fragrance in the particular cosmetic product is of natural origin too (unless it is clearly written on a label). As far as chemical formula of the particular aroma component is discovered, synthesis in a laboratory has begun. Chemical synthesis is many times cheaper than natural raw material, and could be obtained many times faster and in any season of a year. Commercial benzyl salicylate is made by reacting sodium salicylate with benzyl chloride and is > 98 pure (2).

Benzyl salicylate. Is it natural?

Benzyl salicylate contributes to aroma of flowers and plant blossom to attract bees. Benzyl salicylate is naturally found in plants of Plumeria genus (family Apocinaceae) and Annonaceae family, other flowers and biologically active compounds – propolis. For example, the essential oil of plant Plumeria obtusa was found to be rich in benzyl salicylate (45.4%), while the essential oil of plant flowers Melodorum sp (L.W. Jessup) contains only 2.7% and ylang ylang only 2-5% of benzyl salicylate.

However, one should appreciate that Nature is rich and diverse. Not only benzyl salicylate contributes to aroma of ylang ylang, there are more than 100 (one hundred!) aroma compounds in this plant, and benzyl salicylate contributes only by tiny part (3-6).

Singapore graveyard flower (Plumeria obtusa)

Credit: Flowers of Plumeria obtusa (Frangipani, Plumeria), source: https://www.terraforma.ae/shop/product/plumeria-obtusa-frangipani-plumeria/

Very often, benzyl salicylate and another compound – benzyl benzoate – occur in a large number of plant occur together. Plants containing large amounts of these compounds (esters) either alone or together include: Uvaria purpurea, Cananga odorata, Aniba species, Nicotiana sylvestris and N. suaveolens (lO,ll), Sercuridaca longipenduwculata, Diospyros discolor, Gardenia taitensis, Dianthus cayophyllus, Cinnammum species, Ocotea teleiandra and Primula furinosa (7).

Because propolis is a product of bees’ activity – not surprising that benzyl salicylate, as a part of aroma of flavorful flowers, is present in propolis too.

Gardenia is a flower, and there is a bee type called Gardenia too!

Gardenia Bee Hawk Moth (Cephonodes kingii)

Credit: Cephonodes kingii (Gardenia Bee Hawk Moth) feeding on a rainy day, Claire Cottage Dorrigo, 6 pm 23 Feb 2020, source: http://butterfliesdorrigo.weebly.com/cephonodes-kingii-gardenia-bee-hawk-moth.html

As a fragrance

Benzyl salicylate is a fragrant organic solvent widely used in the perfume industry because of its pleasant smell (sweet, balsamic odor) and its ability to facilitate the mixing of perfumes into the rather greasy soap substances (solvent properties) (8).

It has been in public use since the 1920s where the soap and detergent industry has been a major user (2).

Estimated world consumption of benzyl salicylate as aroma chemical in flavor and fragrance composition was 950 tones in 1996 and grew almost 10-fold in 2006 – 8000 tones (9).

Body lotion, face cream, eau de toilette, fragrance cream, antiperspirant, shampoo, bath products, shower gel, toilet soap, aftershave and hair spray and non-cosmetic products such as household cleaners and detergents contain benzyl salicylate (10).

Skin sensitization, penetration through skin, allergy

In early 1960th, first reports and scientific studies were made regarding allergic reactions of benzyl salicylate (2). In 1968, there was a scientific study describing allergy reactions to toilet soaps and detergents in patients with dermatitis. It was found that in most cases, sensitivity to cosmetic product was associated with sensitivity to benzyl salicylate (8). That was the study completed decades ago!

If skin is already damaged or unhealthy (dermatitis patients) – benzyl salicylate causes sensitization responses when it is applied to the skin under exaggerated exposure conditions. On the other hand, benzyl salicylate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a flavor and is generally recognized as a safe ingredient by Flavor and Extract Manufactures’ Association (10).

The questions is “What to do?” One could obviously choose the answer for himself.

Pigmented Contact Dermatitis

Pigmented contact dermatitis could be described as brownish hyperpigmentation on skin. Pigmented contact dermatitis on face could occur, because cosmetic products, like aftershave and face cleansers, make-up, etc. most likely contain benzyl salicylate.

Prior to the 1970s, benzyl salicylate was one of the common causes of pigmented contact dermatitis in Japan. In the late 1970s, major cosmetic companies reduced the usage of benzyl salicylate in their products and, since then, the incidence of pigmented contact dermatitis has decreased remarkably.

Within the last decade, new severe cases of pigmented contact dermatitis on face are known (11, 12).

Estrogenic activity (breast cancer)

Estradiol is a natural female sexual hormone, among others, which plays its functional role in a body. However, the “bad story” begins when the hormones are not in balance – when the level of a particular hormone is too high or too low – it causes other hormones to adapt and brings some kind of “mess” in the order – hormonal misbalance.

Some chemicals (like benzyl salicylate) and even plant-based food products (soya; lupin; barley – in beer!) contain substances which could imbalance natural body estradiol levels (both in males and females). When estradiol levels in a body are in a wrong concentration – it could imbalance body orchestra and therefore could cause various types of cancer (the worst scenario), firstly breast cancer in women.

Research article, published in 2009, has shown that benzyl salicylate (as well as benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional) are chemical components of cosmetic products which provoke estrogenic responses in a human breast cancer (in vivo study – with human cells), i.e. could cause cancer (13).

In another research study it was calculated that users worldwide consume more benzyl salicylate (which induces estradiol imbalance) than it is supposed to be according to maximum secure daily estradiol intake, recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (14). So, no matter what doses are written as safe in the official documents – consumers do not calculate these doses and that would be absolutely impossible task for an average citizen to complete.

No matter what doses are written as safe in the official documents – consumers do not calculate these doses and that would be absolutely impossible task for an average citizen to complete

Incompatibilities

Benzyl salicylate is a representative of the salicylates group. Salicylates are chemically active compounds and known to be incompatible with many other chemical materials used in cosmetics or food (2), such as:

Benzalkonium Chloride  phenylmercuric salts should be used in preference to benzalkonium chloride as a preservative for salicylates
Glycerin (the same as glycerol)  could darken a mixture if glycerin is contaminated with iron
Magnesium oxide  could be adsorbed onto magnesium oxide
Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ethers                            discoloration or precipitation may occur
Polyoxyethylene stearates  discoloration or precipitation may occur
Potassium alum  grey or green colors may be developed in a mixture, because of traces of iron in the alum.
Povidone  forms molecular adducts in solution
Sodium bicarbonate  can intensify the darkening of salicylates
Incompatibilities of benzyl salicylate with other chemical substances

Although the above-mentioned incompatibilities are mostly important for the manufacturer of cosmetic products, not for a consumer, it is worth to know about it. Because we earn what we l’earn, and sometimes incompatible materials still appear in some commercial products (note form the personal observation).

To be continued…

References

  1. Nikitakis J, Lange B. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook Online Version (wINCI). 2019.
  2. Kohrman K, Booman K, Dorsky J, Rothenstein A, Sedlak R, Steltenkamp R, et al. Benzyl salicylate: a survey of consumer patch-test sensitization. Food and chemical toxicology. 1983;21(6):741-4.
  3. Devprakash TR, Gurav S, Kumar G, Mani TT. An review of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activity of Plumeria species. Int.J.Curr.Pharm.Res. 2012;4:1-6.
  4. Thang TD, Dai DN, Hoi TM, Ogunwande IA. Essential oils from five species of Annonaceae from Vietnam. Natural product communications. 2013;8(2):1934578X1300800228.
  5. Aliboni A. Propolis from Northern California and Oregon: chemical composition, botanical origin, and content of allergens. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2014;69(1-2):10-20.
  6. Ekundayo O. A review of the volatiles of the Annonaceae. J Essent Oil Res. 1989;1(5):223-45.
  7. Brophy JJ, Goldsack RJ, Forster PI. Essential oil of austromatthaea elegans ls smith (monimiaceae) leaves. J Essent Oil Res. 1995;7(6):585-8.
  8. Rothenborg HW, Hjorth N. Allergy to perfumes from toilet soaps and detergents in patients with dermatitis. Arch Dermatol. 1968;97(4):417-21.
  9. Schwab W, Davidovich‐Rikanati R, Lewinsohn E. Biosynthesis of plant‐derived flavor compounds. The plant journal. 2008;54(4):712-32.
  10. Lapczynski A, McGinty D, Jones L, Bhatia S, Letizia C, Api A. Fragrance material review on benzyl salicylate. Food and chemical toxicology. 2007;45(1):S362-80.
  11. Zaaroura H, Bergman R, Nevet MJ. Pigmented Facial Contact Dermatitis to Benzyl Salicylate: A Comparative Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of the Involved Skin and the Positive Patch Test Site. Am J Dermatopathol. 2019 Jun;41(6):443-7.
  12. Alagappan U, Tay Y, Lim SR. Pigmented contact dermatitis secondary to benzyl salicylate. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93(5):590.
  13. Charles A, Darbre P. Oestrogenic activity of benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) in MCF7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 2009;29(5):422-34.
  14. Zhang Z, Jia C, Hu Y, Sun L, Jiao J, Zhao L, et al. The estrogenic potential of salicylate esters and their possible risks in foods and cosmetics. Toxicol Lett. 2012;209(2):146-53.

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Prophylactic self-isolation for skin rejuvenation. Day 47th.

Self-sufficient skin rejuvenation. Part 3.

Lets kick off a forthright concept of “good cream” and “bad cream” and just continue going deeper in l’earning about the essence of a cosmetic products. We earn what we l’earn, right?:)

Here is the composition of the real cosmetic product, body and face oil, supposed to be as natural as possible – 96% of the ingredients are of natural origin! Lets dive deep into it and see what is really what:) The ingredients, which we will discuss here today are marked with numbers from 1 to 8:

1. Contains at least 96% natural ingredients

That means, at least 4% are not natural. Therefore, it is important to identify and l’earn about not natural, synthetic ingredients some basic knowledge because only in this way it is possible to decide for yourself: “Do I really need THIS product, or lets search for other (or lets make my own at home:))”. It is something that we would apply to ourselves daily for good, not for the fight between vital skin and unknown chemicals, right?

2. No preservatives

In a body oil composition it is very predictable to have no preservatives, because the product does not contain water. Only water (as a vital solution) creates such a great possibility for microorganisms, germs, etc., to grow.

3. Coco-Caprylate/Caprate

  • Skin conditioning agent and emollient
  • Is it natural? No
  • Is it safe? Safe in the present practices of use
  • Is it of natural origin? Yes, small part of it is of natural origin, however the initial natural raw material no longer exists in the coco-caprylate/caprate.
  • How was it obtained? (In a chemical language): The mixture of esters obtained from the reaction of the fatty alcohols derived from coconut alcohol with a mixture of caprylic acid and capric acid. It is a mixture of esters of coconut alcohol with caprylic acid and capric acid (1):

Blog author’s NOTE: Coconut oil contains caprylic acid (5-11%) and capric acid (4-9%) (2). But, as it is clearly written in the description, only esters of Coconut Alcohol are of coconut origin. That means, that in the coco-caprylate/caprate production caprylic and capric acids are not of natural origin (they are synthetic). It is most likely to be truth, because concentration of caprylic and capric acids in coconuts is small and therefore the overall production of coco-caprylate/caprate substance would be irrational and unprofitable.

4. Dicaprylyl ether /Dioctyl ether or Cetiol® OE/

  • Emollient, Solvent and Skin conditioner. Provides a dry and non-greasy feel to the skin, has fast spreading capabilities, and thus facilitates the spreadability of many slow spreading ingredients (like pure vegetable oils or oil extracts).
  • Is it natural? No
  • Is it of natural origin? Yes, it is derived from caprylic acid, a fatty acid found in coconut or palm kernel oils. However the initial natural raw material no longer exists in the dicaprylyl ether. (In a chemical language): The fatty acids from the oils are esterified and then distilled to separate the capryl alcohol.  Etherification (dehydration) is then done to the capryl alcohol to form dicaprylyl ether and water.
  • Is it safe? Assumed as non-irritating to skin. But, the product has not been tested for reproductive, developmental, etc. toxicity (3, 4, 5, 6).

5. Tocopherol

Generally assumed as vitamin E, a well-known antioxidant

6. Hypericum perforatum

  • Hypericum perforatum is the Latin name of common Saint John’s wort.
  • Is it safe? If the plant is used for cosmetic or medical purposes, intense UV-exposure should be avoided because the plant can cause photo-toxicity and/or skin sensibility (7). That means avoid to apply during late spring, summer and early autumn. Hypericum perforatum plant is created by Nature to be safe ONLY during winter time when Sun exposure is minimal.

Hypericum perforatum plant is created by Nature to be safe ONLY during winter time when Sun exposure is minimal.

7. Benzyl salicylate, linalool, limonene, citronellol, geraniol

All are fragrances. All of them could be of natural origin, however, in this composition they are synthetic because not marked with (*).

8. Natural origin

  • Natural origin does not mean the certain ingredient in the composition of the cosmetic product is natural

References:

  1. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics. Fiume MM et al, 2013 and 2015 at https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/safety-assessment-alkyl-esters-used-cosmetics
  2. Handbook-of-Pharmaceutical-Excipients 6th Edition by Rowe, R.C., Sheskey, P. and Quinn, M., 2009
  3. Cetiol ® Safety Data Sheet at https://doc.chemipan.org/home/images/chemipan/document/product/certificate/CC/CC0316-Cetiol-OE/CC0316-MSDS-Cetiol-OE.pdf
  4. Web publication https://www.tomsofmaine.com/our-promise/ingredients/dicaprylyl-ether
  5. Web publication https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/dicaprylyl-ether-market.asp
  6. Web publication https://cosmetics.specialchem.com/inci/dicaprylyl-ether
  7. European Union herbal monograph on Hypericum perforatum L., herba (traditional use), European Medicines Agency, 2018, at https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-monograph/draft-european-union-herbal-monograph-hypericum-perforatum-l-herba-traditional-use-revision-1_en.pdf

To be continued…

P.S. Warm thanks to a special friend for editing

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Prophylactic self-isolation for shampoo’s formula investigation. Day 31st.

Navigation in shampoo’s oceans. Transparent conception and tips. PART 2

Staying AT HOME, we already have started to l’earn about the shampoo’s formulas. You can find the first part of the investigation in the previous post: https://z-antenna.com/2020/04/04/prophylactic-self-isolation-for-shampoos-formula-investigation-day-23rd/

I will continue to share some basic, transparent conception and tips to navigate in shampoo oceans:)


Navigation in a shampoo oceans or How to choose a better option:

Why “Aqua” is always the first ingredient?

All the ingredients in a shampoo (or any other cosmetic product) formula are written according to their percentage concentration, starting from the ingredients with a highest amount, and finishing with ingredients with a lowest amount. For example:

In the 1st and in the 2nd formulas, Aqua (water) is the main ingredient by percentage, it’s amount is highest. The least amount of ingredient is Cl16255 and Parfum in the 1st and 2nd formulas, respectively.

“Aqua” means water (in Latin). “Aqua” is a trivial, common name of water. In an ingredient list, other than “Aqua” could be “Water” or “Eau”. According to EU regulations, trivial, common names must be used for ingredient labeling and therefore should be easily recognized by consumers speaking different languages. Trivial names of cosmetic ingredients are taken from the European Pharmacopoeia.

Water is a good solvent for plenty of chemical/natural ingredients, and therefore makes a basis (major amount) for a shampoo formulas. Water could be different: purified, deionized, demineralized, tap water… But that aspect is never (never?) mentioned in an ingredient list.

From the other hand, ingredients like Cl16255 or Parfum are needed in very very small amounts to make their job. Actually, they never could be in front of shampoo’s list, but it is good to see them (or not to see at all?) at the end of the list!

What does <<Cl 16255>>mean?

Cl 16255, or any other “Cl” with numbers aside means the synthetic cosmetic colorant. As an example, Cl 16255 is a synthetic colorant “Acid Red 18”, with a chemical formula Trisodium 1-(1-naphthylazo)-2-hydroxynaphthalene-4′,6,8-trisulphonate.

There could be one or more synthetic colorants in one shampoo formula.

Synthetic colorants were found in further received shampoo formulas:

As one could notice, synthetic colorants are rather popular to add in shampoo formulas, because they are cheap and easy to handle with.

About natural colorants

As an alternative, natural colorants sometimes are used by producers. There are plenty of natural colorants available, but they are not cheap and adding them to a “chemical shampoo mixture” could cause unsuspected color changes or other reactions. In other words, it is difficult to manage with them:)

Usually, chlorophylls (magnesium chlorophyll) or Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, as natural colorants, could be found in shampoo formulas (but I did not find it in any of received shampoo formulas).

Is there the word “fragrance” or “parfum”?

In general, if there is a word “fragrance” or “parfum”, it means that ANY chemical with a pleasant smell could be used. Because the amount of parfum required are very very low, it was assumed not even to group them in catalog list (as it is done for synthetic colorants).

Fragrance-sensitive people (children) could be sensitive to shampoo (contact dermatitis) just because of that one ingredient – “parfum” or “fragrance”. This word in an ingredient list is actually mystic, because it could not be identified anyhow by a consumer. Examples from the received formulas:

Synthetic parfum is rather popular to add in shampoo formulas, because it is cheap, easy to handle with and does not require any specific labeling.

Again, all the ingredients in a shampoo formula are written according to their percentage concentration, starting from the ingredients with a highest amount, and finishing with ingredients with a lowest amount. Unidentified parfum, as a potential skin irritant, if present, should be found at the very end of the ingredient list, but not in the middle.

About natural fragrances

In some high quality shampoos, natural fragrances could be added. In that case it will be clearly stated that fragrance/parfum is of natural origin.

Other option

Other option to avoid chemical fragrance/parfum is to look for a statement on a label that “shampoo does not contain any fragrance/parfum”.

Because the topic is really huge, we start from the very basics, and will continue going ahead in further posts. Stay tuned and subscribe to this blog to get notifications about every new post (these days it is coming every day:))

References:

(1) International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook by Joanne Nikitakis and
Beth Lange, Ph.D., 16th edition, 2016

(2) 38 Natural Colourants for Organic Skincare, https://formulabotanica.com/38-natural-colourants-skincare/

(3) Handbook-of-Pharmaceutical-Excipients 6th Edition by Rowe, R.C., Sheskey, P. and Quinn, M., 2009

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Prophylactic self-isolation for shampoo’s formula investigation. Day 23rd.

Navigation in shampoo’s oceans. Transparent conception and tips. PART 1

Once I spoke with a friend of mine, and she said she uses only baby cosmetics for herself, like baby face cream, baby hand cream, baby shampoo… She said there are less hazardous, risky chemicals in children’s formulas. That sounded reasonable to me!

When my shampoo was finished, I went to a pharmacy to choose a baby shampoo for myself:) As a chemist, and a reader of labels for 10 years continuous practice, I immediately turned a chosen bottle to the ingredient list.

To my surprise, the ingredient list of children’s shampoo was not so good! I looked at the other company’s bottles – they were the same!

A few days ago, I asked my friends to send me photos of the ingredient list of their children’s shampoo they use at home. As we STAY HOME, it is time to l’earn something about this mysterious chemistry:))

We are not going to have a deep conversation on the chemical structure of the ingredients of shampoo, also, that is not SLS topic* and which most responsible mothers have already investigated. * SLS is Sodium lauryl sulphate, a chemical that is commonly used in shampoos, soaps, shower gels and toothpaste as a cleansing and foaming agent. However,

I will try to share some basic information and tips to navigate the option of shampoo options:)

Navigating in an ocean of shampoo or How to choose better options:

In general, look at the ingredient list

  • In general, look at the ingredient list: the shorter it is, the better (except formulas that have plant-based ingredients making more than 50% of all composition). Examples from received shampoo formulas:
Length of ingredient list in shampoo formulas

Look for natural, plant-based ingredients

  • look for natural, plant-based ingredients

Some “natural” shampoos have long list of plant-based ingredients and theoretically should be “natural”, but look further to differentiate: a) plant names and b) other natural ingredients or c) chemically-derived components.

Plant names and raw material, found in shampoo formulas:

Calendula officinalis flower extract
Triticum vulgare (Wheat) germ extract
Vaccinium mirtyllus extract
Rubus idaeus extract
Actinidia chinensis fruit juice
Citrus aurantium dulcis juice
Citrus paradisi juice
Pyrus malus juice
Prunus amygdalus dulcis seed extract
Chamomilla recutita (matricaria) extract
Persea gratissima (avocado) fruit extract
Sweet almond oil
Irish moss
Nori seaweed
Lemon oil
Mimosa absolute
Orange flower absolute
Jasmine absolute
Castor oil
Avena sativa (oat) kernel flour
Avena sativa (oat) kernel extract
Plant names and raw materials found in shampoo formulas

Other natural ingredients could be: sea salt, amber extract, honey, limonene.

Formulas where plant-based ingredients make more than 50% of all composition could be considered as plant-based. Examples from received shampoo formulas:

Examples of non plant-based shampoo formulas

Something about Chamomile:

This could come as a surprise for some of us, but natural, plant-based materials could cause allergic reactions. One of the most common plant-allergen is Chamomile flower. According to European Medicines Agency, hypersensitivity reactions including severe allergic reaction (dyspnoea, Quincke’s disease, vascular collapse, anaphylactic shock) following mucosal contact with liquid chamomile preparations have been reported. The frequency is not known (1).

Something about Limonene:

Originally, limonene is a common component of essential oils and therefore could be found in many plants. In shampoo formulas, limonene is known as one of the allergens, because synthetic, cheap, not natural limonene is used.

Limonene could be considered as natural only if it is clearly written after ingredient list that “limonene, which naturally occurs in essential oil” or something like this. If “limonene” is without any additional information provided, most likely, something like 99.9% it will be synthetic. Examples from received shampoo formulas:

Identify the most risky ingredients just before purchasing

One of the most undesirable component in shampoo formulas is Propylene Glycol.

Propylene Glycol in shampoo formula

Propylene glycol is estimated to be one-third as intoxicating as ethanol, with administration of large volumes being associated with adverse effects most commonly on the central nervous system, especially in neonates and children. It is also related to ototoxicity (deafness) and seizures in children (2). Be aware not to use on damaged, dry (with dandruff) or irritated skin. But of course, would recommend to avoid it as for children, as well for adults.

Because the topic is really huge, we start from the very basics, and will continue going ahead in further posts. Stay tuned and subscribe to this blog to get notifications about every new post (these days it is coming every day:))

References:

  1. European Union herbal monograph on Matricaria recutita L., flos EMA/HMPC/55843/2011
  2. Handbook-of-Pharmaceutical-Excipients 6th Edition by Rowe, R.C., Sheskey, P. and Quinn, M., 2009

P.S. Great thanks to a special friend, who devoted her time to this blog post, and improved my English grammar:)

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